Uganda – Children On The Frontline

Amida IDP 2Paul was just six-years old when the rebels came for
him in February 2002.

Fast asleep in his parents’ otlum, the traditional dwelling of the Acholi people in the north of Uganda, he was woken from his dreams, ordered to dress, and then marched, barefoot, at gunpoint, in the pitch darkness into the African bush, along with four other unfortunate children abducted that night from the same village in Gulu district. Behind them, their horrified parents were beaten and tortured but lucky to be left alive. Scared and torn from everything he held dear, Paul didn’t know it at the time, but it would be four years before he was able to seize the opportunity to escape his violent and oppressive abductors.

For a six-year-old in these parts, life should be innocent and consisting of simple pleasures such as helping mother with the younger siblings, while she tills the earth to grow millet, maize and sorghum; and father goes to town to work. For the lucky few, primary school is also a possibility, where new friends can be made and football skills practised in the playground. In other words, the lives and aspirations of the children of northern Uganda shouldn’t be a far cry from those of youngsters the world over. But the dark, ominous threat of abduction by the Lord’s Resistance Army is a blight on every child’s hopes and aspirations, following 19 long years of civil war in this forgotten corner of Africa. Every time they look like they are defeated, the LRA just come back stronger and more malicious than before. And countless more children are torn from their mother’s sides and thrown into a world of suffering, where nothing makes any sense, and hopes of ever seeing home again fade with every passing day.

Gulu Scene
Gulu, N Uganda

The origins of the Lord’s Resistance Army stem from an Acholi woman, named Alice Auma, whose claims of being possessed by Lakwena, a dead Italian Soldier would have seen her burned at the stake in many parts of the world. In 1986, Alice Lakwena gave up her work as a spiritualist in Gulu, N Uganda, and launched the Holy Spirit Movement (HSM), a resistance army, whose primary aim was to overthrow the Museveni government and restore Ugandan power to an Acholi leadership, such as that which had existed with former President Tito Okello. It was widely believed (and still is to an extent) that only an Acholi President will bring development and prosperity to the predominantly Acholi north.

Auma’s plan was doomed to failure, as she was a slave to her spiritual Acholi beliefs, and led her followers to believe that they could be protected from bullets by smearing themselves with sheanut oil. Obviously, casualties were high and Alice Auma, defeated, fled to Kenya, where she still lives today in a refugee camp in the north of the country. Before she fled, the spirit Lakwena deserted her and resumed its work in her father, Severino Lukoya. Lukoya was even more inept than his daughter and only succeeded in driving a brief rebellion in 1987, before he was ousted from the HSM by the leader of a breakaway group called the Ugandan People’s Defence Army (UPDA). The new player’s name was Joseph Kony.

Over the following years, Kony, now also claiming to be possessed by Lakwena, renamed his organisation the Lord’s Resistance Army and exerted his leadership, conducting extensive operations in the districts of Gulu, Pader and Kitgum, in the north of Uganda. Thousands of innocent civilians were abducted and tortured, supposedly for simply not being seen to be supporting him. Kony was quoted as saying in explanation of these acts, “If you picked up an arrow against us and we ended up cutting off the hand you used, who is to blame? You report us with your mouth, and we cut off your lips. Who is to blame? It is you! The Bible says that if your hand, eye or mouth is at fault, it should be cut off.” And so the very people that the LRA was claiming to be fighting on behalf of, were systematically tortured, mutilated and brutalised.

Pido
Acholi Man in Kitgum

In 1994 a new, sinister twist developed as the LRA began widespread abduction of children to bolster its ranks. In their thousands, children were snatched from their beds at night, or whilst on their way to school, and force-marched north, towards the border with Sudan, where they were to be trained how to use weapons in preparation of fighting the Ugandan army. Girls were taken and forced to become wives – sex slaves to the LRA Commanders. Many contracted AIDS. A rule of fear was, and remains, the doctrine to prevent the new ‘recruits’ from escaping and it wasn’t long before accounts began to emerge of unspeakable horrors being forced on these poor, bewildered souls.

Wanting nothing more than to run back to the protection of their mothers, these scared children limp on swollen feet under the weight of heavy loads, weak with hunger, thirsty, bruised and broken from severe beatings. Many of the children have trouble keeping up with the group, and those who cannot are unceremoniously killed – stabbed or beaten to death in full view of the rest of their group, and left for the vultures. Those who are caught trying to escape also face the same consequences. Normally the rebels force other new captives to dish out the punishments, forcing young children to beat or stab to death their terrified companions. Refusal incurs harsh penalties, often death, for not following orders. For those children who survive, taking part in the murder of other captives forms a gruesome initiation into the ranks of the Lord’s Resistance Army and, for many, signifies a point of no return.

Here are just a handful of statements from some of the children who have managed to escape from the LRA:

They beat all my young cousins who were just small boys, four or five years old. One of them they killed. Then they burned the house. Stephen – 17.

Many children tried to escape and were killed. They made us help. I was afraid and I missed my mother. William – 10.

On the third day a little girl tried to escape, and they made us kill her. They said, “You must beat and beat and beat her.” She was bleeding from the mouth. Then she died. Stella – 15.

One day, they found a man riding a bike. They just cut off his foot with an axe. When his wife came out of the house, they told her to eat the foot. Catherine – 17.

They would make us cut people’s legs off. If you don’t help they beat you. My back still hurt from the beatings. But I would not help. Patricia – 15

We could not find water or food, and we ate the leaves of trees. Many became sick and died, and you would see children everywhere, lying down like they were sleeping. But they were dead. Charles – 15

Children tried always to escape, but some of them were recaptured and killed. Mary – 15

I was made to beat two boys who took too long to get water. They were little boys. Phillip – 14

For girls, life in Sudan is particularly hard. Girls given as wives to commanders are forced to provide sexual services; those who refuse are often beaten until they comply. Stephen – 17

They gave me as a wife, but I refused the man. He ordered other boys to beat me on my back with a panga (machete). Catherine – 17.

Primary Schoolchildren
Primary School Children – Kitgum

The troubles in Uganda’s north have now been going on for 19 years, in which, some figures state, 30,000 children have been abducted. Of that, approximately 20,000 are accounted for, either as killed-in-action or as escapees. But 10,000 still remain lost children, and the sad reality is that over 95% of those still missing are almost certainly dead, as latest figures (March 2006) put the LRA’s strength at only a few hundred. Every time we hear that the Ugandan People’s Defence Forces (UPDF) has killed more rebels, what that really means is that more children have been killed in the bush and will not be coming home. But there’s only so much the UPDF can do to minimalise casualties, as the cowardly LRA Commanders treat the children as a dispensable force, pushing their captives to the front line and ordering them to walk tall and keep firing. Any attempts to run for cover and the individual will be shot from behind. For the children, the enemy is on all sides and at times it seems like a UPDF bullet may be the only way out.

UPDF
UPDF Soldiers

So why does such a small group of rebels and one man, Kony, in particular continue to evade capture in today’s age of technology and communication? For the answer to that, we should turn our eyes to both the north and south, and the Sudanese government in Khartoum, along with the Ugandan government in Kampala.

Relations between Kampala and Khartoum have been marred by hostility and suspicion for many years, as each have played their parts in aiding local rebels and militia groups, fighting their respective central authorities. The late John Garang, founder of the Sudanese rebel group, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), was a personal friend to Ugandan President, Yoweri Museveni, who supplied Garang’s troops with training, logistical support and military hardware. In retaliation, Khartoum offered the same deal to the LRA for fighting the SPLA rebels in southern Sudan, and to assist them with their own ongoing struggles against Museveni’s rule. From the mid-1990’s, Kony’s rebels were able to maraud in northern Uganda and then vanish into Sudan with impunity, leaving the UPDF frustrated at the border, unable to pursue.

Gulu Central Highschool
Former abductees at Gulu Central Highschool

For 5 years this continued, as Museveni and Sudan’s president, Omar al-Bashir, slogged out some kind of plan for putting their differences aside, and by 2001 diplomatic relations were finally restored. As talks continued, the UPDF were finally granted permission to follow the LRA into Sudan in order to hunt them down and finish them once and for all. But it simply didn’t happen. Despite vehement denials from Khartoum, some sources claim that information provided, as required, to the Sudanese military when the UPDF are planning a cross-border operation, is forwarded immediately to LRA Commanders, who promptly vacate their camps and disappear into the bush. The UPDF repeatedly find nothing more than recently abandoned camps. Furthermore, accounts from children escaping from the camps in Sudan all bear one thing in common: They all tell of arms and uniforms being routinely delivered by Arab, government troops, despite assurances from Khartoum that they are no longer supporting the LRA.

Whether Khartoum is complicit or not, this has become a war of attrition, and the LRA do seem to be on the losing end. The villages of northern Uganda have long been almost entirely deserted, as some 1.6 million people, 90% of the Acholi population, were moved into guarded Internally Displaced Persons’ (IDP) camps, where they survive on monthly food handouts, provided by the World Food Programme (WFP). Although life in the camps is one of overcrowding, malnutrition, disease epidemics and loss of life to natural hazards, such as fire and flooding, the supply of children for the LRA to snatch has effectively been cut off and an end to the horrors (for the Ugandans, at least) may finally be coming into sight.

Justo Scar
Justo Onur – Amida IDP Camp, Kitgum District. The scar above Justo’s chest is from the exit wound of an AK47 round when he was shot from behind trying to escape the LRA. They left him for dead.

Significantly, in recent times, a number of high-ranking officers have either deserted the LRA or been captured, and have taken advantage of an amnesty offered by Museveni. Three of these high-profile former officers are Onen Kamdulu, Chief of Operations; Brigadier and LRA Spokesman, Sam Kolo; and Kenneth Banya, formerly Kony’s third in command. In an interview I held with Kamdulu and Kolo on the 6th March 2006, in Gulu, Kamdulu suggested that more Commanders would be encouraged to leave Kony if they see their former comrades doing well under the amnesty. Attrition at this level could go a long way to spelling the end of the LRA as we know it.
Kamdulu Sam Kolo
Onen Kamdulu – Former LRA Chief Of Operations and Sam Kolo – Former LRA Brigadier and Spokesman

Meanwhile, sporadic attacks still occur on vehicles along the roads of Gulu and Kitgum districts, by isolated units, cut off from their central command. But the number of children coming out of the bush, having escaped the LRA, has fallen drastically, indicating that numbers may be at an all time low. The main concentration of rebels are now operating solely in Sudan under what appears to be a new remit – to destabilise the region around Yei and Juba, and shut down newly-formed Ugandan trade routes. Under the auspices of the SPLA, roads in the south of Sudan have been de-mined and tarmacked, but peace in the south is seriously denting the finances of certain folks in Khartoum, who no longer are able to corner the market with consumables priced at 300% value. The north south divide in Sudan is as wide as it’s ever been. This conflict in Equatoria is far from over.

So what does the future hold for the brave children, like Paul, now 10, who escaped the LRA following a botched raid on a Latugu tribe’s cattle in Sudan just a month ago? Well, thanks to centres such as the Rachele Rehabilitation Centre in Lira; and the World Vision and Gusco centres in Gulu, trauma counselling is the first step towards recovery from a life of experiences that most adults would struggle to deal with. Paul’s parents have been notified of their son’s return and can now just sit and wait for his recovery to reach a stage where he’s fit to leave the security of the Rachele Centre and travel north to their village for what will undoubtedly be a very emotional reunion. For now, he has Bosco Ochen, his Social Worker – an adult who he trusts to protect him and help him get by each day. Bosco, and many like him, are the unsung heroes of northern Uganda today, slowly but steadily repairing these broken children so that they can resume their lives with something approaching normality.

Paul and Bosco Paul2
Paul with his Social Worker, Bosco, at the Rachele Rehabilitaion Centre, Lira

Schooling is the best chance these children have of surviving and building a future, if they are to avoid sinking into a life of crime and prostitution. But it comes at a price now that the state has reduced sponsorship funding in the last month from 60% to less than 10% of all students. It costs approximately £170/$300 to send a child to school for one year in Uganda, a cost that is out of the realms of most average farming families, and totally unachievable for the families that are languishing in the IDP camps. Many of the formerly abducted children don’t even have parents, having lost them either to the war or to AIDS, and so organisations such as Belgium-based Sponsoring Children Uganda are their only lifeline. More then 2,500 formerly abducted children have returned to school through this programme, and some have even progressed to university, illustrating that schemes such as this can (and do) work, and don’t necessarily just furnish the President with a new Land Rover. But many more come to the centres or the school gates only to be turned away through lack of funds. Paul may even yet be one of them.

Painting
Painting by formerly abducted child, showing the day the LRA came

The future may not look bright for the Acholi of northern Uganda and their children, but it may at least be beginning to clear, albeit at a cost to the Dinka and other tribes of southern Sudan, who now have the LRA in their backyard to contend with. There’s little we can do about the past, except hang our heads in shame for doing so little to stop these terrifying atrocities from happening to innocent, wide-eyed children for so many years. But the very least we can do now is help in anyway we can, however little, to provide a future for the thousands of kids, who we’ve so far failed to protect.

Author – Lee Ridley.

All names have been changed.

For more information on Sponsoring Children Uganda, visit – www.Childsoldiers.net
Donations can also be made via the dog-tag scheme – www.namecampaign.org

For more information on the LRA, a valuable insight into the reality of life in the rebel army can be found in the book Aboke Girls, by Els De Temmerman. All proceeds go to Sponsoring Children Uganda.

Sources:

Websites –
http://www.childsoldiers.net
http://www.c-r.org
www.namecampaign.org
New Vision Newspapers

Conversations with –
Els De Temmerman – Consulting Editor for The New Vision and Author of Aboke Girls.
Emmy Allio Ewaku – Senior Reporter for The New Vision.
Betty Bigombe – LRA/Museveni Peace Talks Mediator.
Onen Kamdulu – Former LRA Chief of Operations.
Sam Kolo – Former LRA Brigadier and Spokesman.
Bosco Ochen – Social Worker at the Rachele Rehabilitation Centre, Lira.

Paul1

  23 comments for “Uganda – Children On The Frontline

  1. Spiro
    March 25, 2006 at 4:16 am

    I wish this would stop, I will pray to my God that this Joseph Kony will die a horrible death and that his army will be no more. May we do all we can to save the children, please I ask who ever can help to help any way they can. Why do they keep these formaer commanders of the LRA allive they should be executed for the crimes they have commited.

  2. March 25, 2006 at 5:34 am

    Great story Lee. Very eye opening and very depressing.

    That Kandulu guys doesn’t look too impressed.

  3. Lee
    March 25, 2006 at 8:19 am

    Spiro,

    You need to look at the long game. If they execute the few Commanders that they have, they’ll ruin any chance of getting the remaining high-command to surrender. According to Kamdulu, many of them do want to surrender, now that their nutjob leader has taken them to war against the people of southern Sudan, and given up on ousting Museveni. This was, after all, what kept many of them in the LRA once they were promoted and began to get chances of escape.

    The amnesty must stick in the throats of the UPDF, but it actually seems to be working.

    Rob,

    Kamdulu, I think, felt a little pressured by me because of some of the very direct questions I was asking him. He eventually loosened up, but I didn’t want to use a picture of him smiling.

  4. Spiro
    March 27, 2006 at 3:06 am

    OK so they want to surrender but I still believe justice should be done. These poeple are barbarians. They should be punished.

  5. April 16, 2006 at 8:59 pm

    I have been close to this back in Rwanda in 94-95 when I was with UNAMIR – its not only in Uganda that these things are happening now and then!.. it is a widespread African policy – fortunately – Paul Kagame was and is to my view one of the best trained commanders (he did study at the Ft Leavenworth General Staff College) and he is one of the best commanders that took a rag tag army and made it into a force to be reckoned with!.. and he did it without having to resort to children soldiers!..that is what I admire in him!.. he would chastise and even kill his own men if they where found to have raped and or killed without reason!.. Uganda has always been a hot pot of sorts now and then!.. I really don’t see any forceable future changes unless the major countries put their foot down and make this atrocities stop!..

  6. Spiro
    May 12, 2006 at 11:17 pm

    There is child soldiers all over Africa in liberia and he DR of Congo but the major powers will never intervene, the UN won’t intervene this is Africa and I have noticed no cares about Africa people are to scared even to visit. Here in Australia it never is mentioned and the people I know believe that everytime I visit Africa I will catch some terrible disease and die. I love Africa and I am doing my best to help. Please if you can help then do help.

  7. May 14, 2006 at 10:31 am

    Thanks for your comments Spiro. The very specific aim of this article is to reach people who don’t know about the troubles in N Uganda. And hopefully prompt some people into action.

    I intentionally described the lives, hopes, and aspirations of the kids so that people reading the article would perhaps grasp that the people are precisely the same as us – living, feeling, caring, worrying etc… Not just worthless “Africans”.

  8. Donna Pido
    November 16, 2006 at 2:02 pm

    I came across your website while searching the name pido on google. The picture of the acholi man came up subtitled Pido. I have searched the document and don’t find the name in it. Can you tell me what the Pido reference is? Just curious. Regards
    Donna Pido

  9. Lee
    November 20, 2006 at 8:13 am

    Yes, it’s his name.

  10. February 14, 2007 at 12:51 pm

    hello! my name is veronica, and i just want to say that i pray every night that the war in sudan to stop . i have ran away from my land when i was just a toddler and looking back now how my people are suffering my heart bleeds with pain. i love my land

  11. michael akena
    April 11, 2007 at 10:11 am

    Pido is define as justice. Replt to Donna Pido posted 11.16.06.

  12. April 12, 2007 at 3:44 pm

    No, Michael, it’s the old boy’s name.

  13. Dinny
    June 13, 2007 at 1:06 am

    What everyone needs to realize is that most of the soldiers are not there by choice. The ones that last a long time with the LRA arethose who have beeen brain washed. They believe that what they are being told is the truth. There is only one man who deserves punishment and that is Joseph Kony. The rest just need therapy and some help. Most of them are children. Not adults. We need to let the world know show them what they could be living through if they had lived in a different time or place. We are all humans and deserve the same rights. We deserve to able to protect our children and fell safe in our own beds!
    Spread the word. Like these guys at invisiblechildren.com. They creadted a documentary on child soldiers check them out.

  14. June 24, 2007 at 1:19 am

    as a ugandan who spent my early childhood in northern uganda in the lira district now living in england, it breaks my heart how this crisis gets liitle attention/help and the young innocent lives blighted by war and the next generation growing up in campsites, i can only pray for compassion for africa and the children who lost their childhoods.

  15. December 2, 2007 at 4:22 am

    Let’s try to be logical for a moment (1) Do you really believe that a Ugandan national army, trained and well equipped by the United States, that was able to overrun what was then Zaire in a matter of weeks and depose Mobuttu could not have destroyed the LRA terrorists years ago? (2) Do you really believe that it is a mere “coincidence” that Yoweri Museveni’s army was found in 2005 liable by the International Court of Justice for the same alleged crimes that his army has committed against civilians in northern Uganda; i.e., rapes of both women and men; massacres including burying people alive; burning people inside their huts; looting of resources, etc. [Go to the International Court of Justice’s Website please. FYI, the International Criminal Court, ICC, is investigating the same allegations of crime against humanity by Museveni’s army in DRC Congo and top military officers, including General Museveni, could be indicted—like Liberia’s former president, Charles Taylor, for crimes committed in Sierra Leone) (3) Do you really believe that 2 million Acholis were confined in concentration camps in northern Uganda for 20 years and going, to protect them from Joseph Kony’s rag-tag Army? According to the World Health Organization, 1,000 died per week from filth, diseases, starvation, lack of water, and sexual violence, in these camps. That’s 52,000 per year; that’s 520,000 in the past 10 years and more than a million over the last 20 years. Even the LRA would be impressed with such kill-rates…Who then, given these numbers have been most destructive to Acholis. Kony’s ragtag terrorists or Museveni’s army and his genocical policies?
    Just some food for thought….
    Wouldn’t it be a brilliant idea for someone — maybe you — to actually go and interview Acholis in the camps and ignore the government and/or the LRA’s propaganda for once?

  16. December 3, 2007 at 6:03 pm

    Interesting comments Milton thanks for the insights and perspective.

    Input like that is always welcome.

  17. December 3, 2007 at 6:23 pm

    Milton, thanks for your insightful input. For your information, I did visit two IDP camps and talk at length to the people there. Best regards, Lee.

  18. geneva
    January 25, 2008 at 3:10 pm

    I THINK YHAT THE CHILDREN OF uGANDA ARE BEING TREATED HORIBLE IT MAKES ME WANT TO CRY WENE I READ ABOUT THEIS BRAVE LITTLE KIDS AND WHAT THEY HAVE BEEN THROUGH.

  19. Tricia
    January 26, 2008 at 9:38 pm

    Uganda isn’t being heard more people need to touch on these stories and ask why we as women are not our there to help at least reach the minds of the women. I think you photographs don’t show in depth or detail what is going on, do you have more? I truly hope you extend this project and get more people involved. Well done!

  20. Richard
    February 21, 2008 at 3:32 am

    Hey guy, u guys make proud of being Acholi although i am in different place i still love to be acholi. u guy rock and rock

  21. March 5, 2008 at 2:06 pm

    our work now in gulu!

    ombrenelmondo.blogspot,com
    http://www.ombrenelmondo.org
    by

    Associazione OmbreNelMondo, Italy

  22. March 27, 2008 at 10:15 am

    Tricia,

    I have many more photographs from that trip, including the plight of the women. I would be happy to share them with anyone who’s interested. Such requests should, however, be posted on the main forum or emailed to me directly, as I drop in on this comments page very infrequently.

    Best regards,

    Lee.

  23. July 9, 2008 at 11:30 pm

    Lee, I am so amazed with all that I have learned over this past year. My life has forever been changed, It started out by the research I have been doing on the Moringa tree, and the nutrients it offers to many in the third world countries, and now in our own country. During my research I have viewed pictures in many areas, and I do not like what I have seen. It is amazing to me that families, children, husbands and wifes, have to live like this when we have been given so much. Its amazing to me how beautiful these children are, with beautiful voices, so much sadness. What can be done to stop this. There has to be an solution some where. I know that God can not control the raft of a mad man, but I also know that this can not continue to happen. Why has this gone on so long?

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